Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Types of "if"


A harf; used when you are looking back at events. It is also used for hypothetical statements. ل indicates the start of the second phrase


لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَى جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ
Had We sent down this Qur'an on a mountain, verily, thou wouldst have seen it humble itself and cleave asunder for fear of Allah. Al-Hashr [59:21]


A harf; used for connecting two future events. For instance, 'if something happens, something will happen'. If إِن enter on a ماضى (past) verb, then the meaning of the verb changes to present.

انْ جَاءك زيدٌ
here the verb - جَاء - is a ماضى
(past) verb, but the translation is, if Zaid comes to you. The verb has changed to مضارى (present)
If it enters on a
مضارى (present) verb, then the meaning is restricted to مستقبل (future)


وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا
And if you doubt any part of what We have, bestowed from on high, step by step, upon Our servant [Muhammad]...... 2:23